For Gauche 0.9.5


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9.19 gauche.net - Networking

Module: gauche.net

Provides a set of functions necessary for network communications based on BSD socket interface.

The API is provided in two different levels. Lower level routines reflect traditional BSD socket interface, such as bind(2). Higher level routines provides more convenient way to create typical connection-oriented server/client sockets.

This module also provides APIs to obtain various information about hostnames, service ports, and protocols.

Gauche can handle IPv6 if it is compiled with the --enable-ipv6 configuration option. To check whether IPv6 is enabled or not, you can use cond-expand with gauche.net.ipv6 feature identifier after loading gauche.net, as shown below.

(use gauche.net)
(cond-expand
  (gauche.net.ipv6
    ... code to use ipv6 ...)
  (else
    ... ipv4 only code ...))

See Feature conditional for the details of cond-expand.

Note: If you want to write a portable program using network, take a look at srfi-106 (see Basic socket interface).


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9.19.1 Socket address

Socket address objects

Builtin Class: <sockaddr>

An abstract base class of socket addresses. Each socket address family is implemented as a subclass of this class.

Although socket addresses are built-in classes, you can use make method to create an instance of a specific socket address family.

Generic Function: sockaddr-family addr

Returns a symbol that indicates the family of the socket address addr.

Generic Function: sockaddr-name addr

Returns a string which represents the content of the socket address addr.

Builtin Class: <sockaddr-in>

AF_INET family socket address. To create an instance of this class, use make method as follows:

(make <sockaddr-in> :host host :port port)

host can be a string, an integer IP address, a u8vector IP address, or one of the keywords :any, :broadcast, :none or :loopback. If it is a string, it is either a host name or a dotted IP notation. Gauche uses gethostbyname(3) to obtain the actual IP address from host parameter. If it is a keyword :any, or :broadcast, the address uses INADDR_ANY, or INADDR_BROADCAST respectively. The keyword :loopback is a synonym to the IPv4 loopback address "127.0.0.1".

port must be a positive integer indicating the port number. See also make-sockaddrs below, to create multiple socket addresses on the machine which may have more than one protocol stack.

Method: sockaddr-family (addr <sockaddr-in>)

Returns a symbol inet.

Method: sockaddr-name (addr <sockaddr-in>)

Returns a string in the form "a.b.c.d:port", where "a.b.c.d" is dotted decimal notion of the IP address and port is the port number.

Method: sockaddr-addr (addr <sockaddr-in>)
Method: sockaddr-port (addr <sockaddr-in>)

Returns the IP address and the port number as an integer, respectively.

Builtin Class: <sockaddr-un>

AF_UNIX family socket address. To create an instance of this class, use make method as follows:

(make <sockaddr-un> :path path)

path must be a string specifying pathname of the socket.

Method: sockaddr-family (addr <sockaddr-un>)

Returns a symbol unix.

Method: sockaddr-name (addr <sockaddr-un>)

Returns a pathname of the socket address.

Builtin Class: <sockaddr-in6>

AF_INET6 family socket address. This is only available if gauche is configured with –enable-ipv6 configure option. The constructor and the slots are the same as <sockaddr-in>. See also make-sockaddrs below, to create multiple socket addresses on the machine which may have more than one protocol stack.

Function: make-sockaddrs host port :optional proto

This is a higher-level utility procedure to create all possible inet domain socket addresses that point to host:port of protocol proto. Particularly, if the specified host has both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, and the running system supports both, then both IPv4 and IPv6 socket addresses are returned. If host has multiple IP addresses, socket addresses are created for each of these IP address. You can make your network application much more portable among different network stack configurations.

Passing #f to host creates the local (server) address. You can also pass a service name (e.g. "http") instead of an integer, to the port argument. The value of proto can be either a symbol tcp or udp, and the default is tcp.

It always returns a list of socket addresses. If the lookup of host is failed, null list is returned.

Address and string conversion

Function: inet-string->address address

Converts string representating of the internet address address to an integer address. If address is parsed successfully, returns two values: the integer address value and the recognized protocol (the constant value 2 (= AF_INET) for IPv4 addresses, and 10 (= AF_INET6) for IPv6 addresses). If address can’t be parsed, #f and #f are returned.

(inet-string->address "192.168.1.1")
 ⇒ 3232235777 and 2
(inet-string->address "::1")
 ⇒ 1 and 10
(inet-string->address "::192.168.1.1")
 ⇒ 3232235777 and 10
(inet-string->address "ffe0::1")
 ⇒ 340116213421465348979261631549233168385 and 10
(inet-string->address "::192.168.1.1")
 ⇒ 3232235777 and 10
Function: inet-string->address! address buf

Like inet-string->address, but fills the given u8vector buf by the parsed address instead of returning it as an integer value. The integer representation of inet addresses is likely to be a bignum, and you can avoid creating bignums with this function. The given u8vector buf must be mutable. Returns the protocol on success, or #f on failure.

The caller must provide big enough buffer. If buf is larger than required, the result is filled from the top of the u8vector and the rest of the vector remains intact.

(let* ((buf (make-u8vector 16 0))
       (proto (inet-string->address! "192.168.1.1" buf)))
  (list proto buf))
 ⇒ (2 #u8(192 168 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))
Function: inet-address->string address protocol

Converts the given address to its string representation of the protocol protocol, which can be either 2 (the constant AF_INET) or 10 (the constant AF_INET6). An integer or a u8vector can be used as address. If it is a u8vector, only the necessary portion of the vector is read; i.e. the vector can be longer than the required length.

(inet-address->string 3232235777 AF_INET)
  ⇒ "192.168.1.1"

(inet-address->string '#u8(192 168 1 1) AF_INET)
  ⇒ "192.168.1.1"

(inet-address->string 3232235777 AF_INET6)
  ⇒ "::c0a8:101"

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9.19.2 High-level network functions

Builtin Class: <socket>

Abstracts a socket, a communication endpoint.

For a connection-oriented socket, you can access the communication channel by two ports associated to the socket, one for input and another for output. socket-input-port and socket-output-port returns those ports, respectively.

The following three functions are convenient ways to create a connection-oriented socket. Those functions are to provide an easy methods for typical cases, but have less control. If you need more than these functions provide, use low-level interface.

Function: make-client-socket :optional address-spec …

Creates and returns a client socket, connected to the address specified by address-spec ….

(make-client-socket 'unix path)

The client socket is connected to the unix domain server socket of address path.

(make-client-socket 'inet host port)

The client socket is connected to the inet domain server socket with hostname host and port port. TCP protocol is assumed. host can be either a hostname, or a dotted decimal notation of IPv4 address. If gauche is compiled with –enable-ipv6, IPv6 address notation can also be used. Port must be an exact integer specifying a port number, or a string service name (e.g. "http").

If gauche is compiled with –enable-ipv6, and the hostname is given, and the hostname has both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses, then IPv6 connection is tried first, and IPv4 is used when IPv6 fails.

(make-client-socket host port)

This works the same as above. This form is for compatibility with STk.

(make-client-socket sockaddr)

If an instance of <sockaddr> is passed, a socket suitable for sockaddr is opened and then connected to the given address.

This function raises an error if it cannot create a socket, or cannot connect to the specified address.

(make-client-socket 'inet "www.w3.com" 80)
  ⇒ ;a socket connected to www.w3.com, port 80
(make-client-socket "127.0.0.1" 23)
  ⇒ ;a socket connected to localhost, port 23
(make-client-socket 'unix "/tmp/.sock"
  ⇒ ;a socket connected to a unix domain socket "/tmp/.sock"
Function: make-server-socket :optional address-spec …

Creates and returns a server socket, listening the address specified by address-spec.

(make-server-socket 'unix path [:backlog num])

The socket is bound to a unix domain socket with a name path. The keyword argument backlog is passed to socket-listen to specify the maximum number of connection request the server can keep before accepting them. The default is 5. If your server is very busy and you see "connection refused" often, you might want to increase it.

(make-server-socket 'inet port [:reuse-addr? flag] [:sock-init proc] [:backlog num])

The socket is bound to an inet domain TCP socket, listening port port, which must be a non-negative exact integer or a string service name (e.g. "http"). If port is zero, the system assigns one of available port numbers. If a keyword argument reuse-addr? is given and true, SO_REUSEADDR option is set to the socket before bound to the port. This allows the process to bind the server socket immediately after other process releases the port.

Alternatively, you can pass a list of positive exact integers to port. In that case, Gauche tries to bind each port in the list until it succeeds.

If keyword argument sock-init is given, it should be a procedure that takes two arguments, a created socket and the socket address. The procedure is called just after the socket is created. It is useful to set some special socket options. The keyword argument backlog is the same as in unix sockets; see the description above.

(make-server-socket port [:reuse-addr? flag] [:sock-init proc][:backlog num])

This is a synonym to the above form (except port must be an integer). This form is backward-compatible with STk’s make-server-socket.

(make-server-socket sockaddr [:reuse-addr? flag][:sock-init proc][:backlog num])

This form explicitly specifies the socket address to listen by an instance of <sockaddr>.

(make-server-socket 'inet 8080)
  ⇒ #<socket (listen "0.0.0.0:8080")>
(make-server-socket 8080)
  ⇒ #<socket (listen "0.0.0.0:8080")>
(make-server-socket 'inet 0)
  ⇒ #<socket (listen "0.0.0.0:35628")>
(make-server-socket 'unix "/tmp/.sock")
  ⇒ #<socket (listen "/tmp/.sock")>
Function: make-server-sockets host port :key reuse-addr? sock-init

Creates one or more sockets that listen at port on all available network interfaces of host. You can specify a service name (such as "http") to port, as well as an integer port number. Returns a list of opened, bound and listened sockets.

This procedure is particularly useful when the host has multiple protocol stacks, such as IPv4 and IPv6. In that case, this procedure may return a list of IPv4 socket(s) and IPv6 socket(s). (On some OSes, single socket can listen both IPv4 and IPv6. On such platform, a list of single socket will be returned.)

The meaning of keyword arguments are the same as of make-server-socket.

You can pass 0 to port, just like make-server-socket, to let the system choose an available port number. If pass 0 as port and this procedure returns multiple sockets, it is guaranteed that all the sockets share the same port number.

Several accessors are available on the returned socket object.

Function: socket-address socket

Returns a socket address associated with socket. If no address has been associated to the socket, #f is returned.

Function: socket-input-port socket :key (buffering :modest)
Function: socket-output-port socket :key (buffering :line)

Returns an input and output port associated with socket, respectively.

The keyword argument buffering specifies the buffering mode of the port. See File ports, for explanation of the buffering mode.

Function: socket-close socket

Closes socket. All the ports associated to socket are closed as well. Note: as of release 0.7.2, this procedure does not shutdown the connection. It is because socket may be referenced by forked process(es) and you might want to close it without interfering the existing connection. You can call socket-shutdown to shutdown the connection explicitly.

Function: call-with-client-socket socket proc :key input-buffering output-buffering

socket must be a connected client socket. proc is called with two arguments, an input port that reads from the socket and an output port that writes to the socket. The socket is closed after proc returns or proc raises an error.

The keyword arguments input-buffering and output-buffering are, if given, passed as the buffering keyword arguments of socket-input-port and socket-output-port, respectively.

This is an example of usage of high-level socket functions, a very simple http client.

#!/usr/bin/env gosh
(use gauche.net)

(define (usage)
  (display "Usage: swget url\n" (current-error-port))
  (exit 1))

;; Returns three values: host, port, and path.
(define (parse-url url)
  (rxmatch-let (rxmatch #/^http:\/\/([-A-Za-z\d.]+)(:(\d+))?(\/.*)?/ url)
      (#f host #f port path)
    (values host port path)))

(define (get url)
  (receive (host port path) (parse-url url)
    (call-with-client-socket
        (make-client-socket 'inet host (string->number (or port "80")))
      (lambda (in out)
        (format out "GET ~a HTTP/1.0\r\n" path)
        (format out "host: ~a\r\n\r\n" host)
        (flush out)
        (copy-port in (current-output-port))))))

(define (main args)
  (if (= (length args) 2)
      (get (cadr args))
      (usage))
  0)

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9.19.3 Low-level socket interface

These functions provide APIs similar to the system calls. Those who are familiar to programming with socket APIs will find these functions useful since you can have more detailed control over the sockets.

Function: make-socket domain type :optional protocol

Returns a socket with specified parameters.

Constant: PF_UNIX
Constant: PF_INET
Constant: PF_INET6

These constants are bound to the system’s constants PF_UNIX, PF_INET and PF_INET6. You can use those values for domain argument of make-socket.

(PF_INET6 is defined only if the underlying operating system supports IPv6.)

Constant: AF_UNIX
Constant: AF_INET
Constant: AF_INET6

These constants are bound to AF_UNIX, AF_INET and AF_INET6.

(AF_INET6 is defined only if the underlying operating system supports IPv6.)

Constant: SOCK_STREAM
Constant: SOCK_DGRAM
Constant: SOCK_RAW

These constants are bound to SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_RAW, and suitable to pass to the type argument of make-socket.

Function: socket-fd socket

Returns an integer system file descriptor of the underlying socket.

Function: socket-status socket

Returns a internal status of socket, by one of the following symbols.

noneThe socket is just created.
boundThe socket is bound to an address by socket-bind
listeningThe socket is listening a connection by socket-listen
connectedThe socket is connected by socket-connect or socket-accept.
shutdownThe socket is shutdown by socket-shutdown
closedThe socket is closed by socket-close.
Function: socket-bind socket address

Binds socket to the local network address address. It is usually used to associate specific address to the server port. If binding failed, an error is signaled (most likely the address is already in use).

For the inet domain address, you can pass address with port=0; the system assigns the port number and sets the actual address to the address slot of socket.

Function: socket-listen socket backlog

Listens socket. The socket must be already bound to some address. backlog specifies maximum number of connection requests to be queued.

Function: socket-accept socket

Accepts a connection request coming to socket. Returns a new socket that is connected to the remote entity. The original socket keeps waiting for further connections. If there’s no connection requests, this call waits for one to come.

You can use sys-select to check if there’s a pending connection request.

Function: socket-connect socket address

Connects socket to the remote address address. This is the way for a client socket to connect to the remote entity.

Function: socket-shutdown socket how

Shuts down connection of socket. If how is SHUT_RD (or 0), the receive channel of socket is disallowed. If how is SHUT_WR (or 1), the send channel of socket is disallowed. If how is SHUT_RDWR (or 2), both receive and send channels are disallowed. It is an error to call this function on a non-connected socket.

If you shut down the send channel of the socket, the remote peer sees EOF from its receive channel. This is useful if the remote peer expects EOF before sending something back to you.

Function: socket-getsockname socket

Returns a <sockaddr> instance that is the local address of socket.

Function: socket-getpeername socket

Returns a <sockaddr> instance that is the peer address of socket.

Function: socket-send socket msg :optional flags
Function: socket-sendto socket msg to-address :optional flags.

Interfaces to send(2) and sendto(2), respectively. Transmits the content of msg through socket. msg can be either a string or a uniform vector; if you send binary packets, uniform vectors are recommended.

Returns the nubmer of octets that are actually sent.

When socket-send is used, socket must already be connected. On the other hand, socket-sendto can be used for non-connected socket, and the destination address is specified by a <sockaddr> instance to-address.

The optional flags can be a bitwise OR of the integer constants MSG_*. See the system’s manpage of send(2) and sendto(2) for the details.

Function: socket-sendmsg socket msghdr :optional flags

Sends a packet described by msghdr through socket using sendmsg(3). The msghdr argument must be a string or u8vector, and it must be prepared as a binary representation of struct msghdr. A reliable way to build a msghdr is to use socket-buildmsg described below.

The flags argument is the same as socket-send and socket-sendto.

Returns number of octets sent.

This procedure is not yet supported under the Windows native platform. You can use the feature identifier gauche.os.windows to check availability of this procedure (see Platform-dependent features).

Function: socket-buildmsg addr iov control flags :optional buf

Builds a binary representation of struct msghdr which is suitable to be given to socket-sendmsg. You have to be familiar with sendmsg(3) system call to understand this procedure.

The addr argument must be an instance of <sockaddr> or #f. If it is a sockaddr, the msg_name field of the msghdr is filled with the address.

The iov argument must be a vector or #f. If it is a vector, each element must be either a string or a u8vector. They are used to fill msg_iov field of the msghdr. Their contents will be concatenated in the kernel to make a payload.

The control argument represents ancillary data, a.k.a. cmsg. It can be #f if you don’t need ancillary data. Otherwise, it must be a list in the following form:

((level type data) …)

Where level and type are exact integers, and data is either a string or a u8vector. The former two are used to fill cmsg’s cmsg_level and cmsg_type fields. The data is for cmsg’s data (cmsg_len is calculated from data).

The flags argument is used to fill msg_flags.

If the buf argument is #f or omitted, new memories are allocated to construct the msghdr. If a mutable u8vector is given to buf, socket-buildmsg tries to use it to construct the msghdr as much as possible; it allocates memory only if buf is used up.

Returns the constructed msghdr as a u8vector.

This procedure is not yet supported under the Windows native platform. You can use the feature identifier gauche.os.windows to check availability of this procedure (see Platform-dependent features).

Function: socket-recv! socket buf :optional flags

Interface to recv(2). Receives a message from socket, and stores it into buf, which must be a mutable uniform vector. Returns the number of bytes actually written. socket must be already connected. If the size of buf isn’t enough to store the entire message, the rest may be discarded depending on the type of socket.

The optional flags can be a bitwise OR of the integer constants MSG_*. See the system’s manpage of recv(2) for the details.

Function: socket-recvfrom! socket buf addrs :optional flags

Interface to recvfrom(2). Receives a message from socket, which may be unconnected, and stores it to a mutable uniform vector buf. Like socket-recv, if the size of buf isn’t enough to store the entire message, the rest may be discarded depending on the type of socket.

Returns two values; the number of bytes actually written into buf, and an instance of a subclass of <sys-sockaddr> which shows the sender’s address.

The addrs argument must be a list of instances of socket addresses, optionally its last cdr being #t (as a special case, if there’s zero addresses to pass, just #t may be given). The content of each address doesn’t matter; if the protocol family of one of them matches the sender’s address, the sender’s address is written into the passed sockaddr object. By listing sockaddrs of possible families, you can count on socket-recvfrom! to allocate no memory on successful operation. It is useful if you call socket-recvfrom! in a speed-sensitive inner loop.

If the sender’s address family doesn’t match any of the addresses given to addrs, the behavior depends on whether the list is terminated by () or #t. If it is terminated by (), (i.e. addrs is a proper list), the sender’s address is simply discarded and socket-recvfrom! returns #f as the second value. If the list is terminated by #t, socket-recvfrom! allocates a fresh sockaddr object and returns it as the second value.

Two simple cases: If you pass () to addrs, the sender’s address is always discarded, which is useful if socket is connected (that is, you already know your sender’s address). If you pass #t to addrs, a new socket address object is always allocated for the sender’s address, which is convenient if you don’t mind memory allocation.

The optional flags can be a bitwise OR of the integer constants MSG_*. See the system’s manpage of recvfrom(2) for the details.

Function: socket-recv socket bytes :optional flags
Function: socket-recvfrom socket bytes :optional flags

Like socket-recv! and socket-recvfrom!, but these returns the received message as a (possibly incomplete) string, up to bytes size. Additionally, socket-recvfrom always allocates a socket address object for the sender’s address.

The use of these procedures are discouraged, since they often returns incomplete strings for binary messages. Using strings for binary data creates many pitfalls. Uniform vectors (especially u8vectors) are for binary data. (The reason these procedures return strings is merely historical.)

Variable: MSG_CTRUNC
Variable: MSG_DONTROUTE
Variable: MSG_EOR
Variable: MSG_OOB
Variable: MSG_PEEK
Variable: MSG_TRUNC
Variable: MSG_WAITALL

Pre-defined integer constants to be used as flags values for socket-send, socket-sendto, socket-recv and socket-recvfrom. Some of these constants may not be defined if the underlying operating system doesn’t provide them.

Further control over sockets and protocol layers is possible by getsockopt/setsockopt interface, as described below.

Function: socket-setsockopt socket level option value
Function: socket-getsockopt socket level option rsize

These are the interface to setsockopt() and getsockopt() calls. The interface is a bit clumsy, in order to allow full access to those low-level calls.

socket must be a non-closed socket object. level and option is an exact integer to specify the level of protocol stack and the option you want to deal with. There are several variables pre-bound to system constants listed below.

To set the socket option, you can pass either an exact integer or a string to value. If it is an integer, the value is passed to setsockopt(2) as C int value. If it is a string, the byte sequence is passed as is. The required type of value depends on the option, and Gauche can’t know if the value you passed is expected by setsockopt(2); it is your responsibility to pass the correct values.

To get the socket option, you need to tell the maximum length of expected result by rsize parameter, for Gauche doesn’t know the amount of data each option returns. socket-getsockopt returns the option value as a byte string. If you know the option value is an integer, you can pass 0 to rsize; in that case socket-getsockopt returns the value as an exact integer.

Note about the name: I tempted to name these function socket-{set|get}opt or socket-{set|get}-option, but I rather took the naming consistency. Hence duplicated "sock"s.

The following predefined variables are provided. Note that some of them are not available on all platforms. See manpages socket(7), tcp(7) or ip(7) of your system to find out exact specification of those values.

For “level” argument:

Variable: SOL_SOCKET
Variable: SOL_TCP
Variable: SOL_IP

These variables are bound to SOL_SOCKET, SOL_TCP and SOL_IP, respectively.

For “option” argument:

Variable: SO_KEEPALIVE

Expects integer value. If it is not zero, enables sending of keep-alive messages on connection-oriented sockets.

Variable: SO_OOBINLINE

Expects integer value. If it is not zero, out-of-band data is directly placed into the receive data stream. Otherwise out-of-band data is only passed when the MSG_OOB flag is set during receiving.

Variable: SO_REUSEADDR

Expects integer value. If it is not zero, socket-bind allows to reuse local addresses, unless an active listening socket bound to the address.

Variable: SO_TYPE

Gets the socket type as an integer (like sock_stream). Can be only used with socket-getsockopt.

Variable: SO_BROADCAST

Expects integer value. If it is not zero, datagram sockets are allowed to send/receive broadcast packets.

Variable: SO_PRIORITY

Expects integer value, specifying the protocol-defined priority for all packets to be sent on this socket.

Variable: SO_ERROR

Gets and clears the pending socket error as an integer. Can be only used with socket-getsockopt.

Function: inet-checksum packet size

Calculates one’s complement of Internet Checksum (RFC1071) of the packet, which must be given as a uniform vector. First size bytes of packet are used for calculation. Returned value is in network byte order (big-endian). It is an error if size is greater than the size of packet.

Note: The used algorithm assumes packet is not too big (< 64K).


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9.19.4 Netdb interface

Builtin Class: <sys-hostent>

A class of objects for network hosts. Corresponding to struct hostent in C. The following slots are available read-only.

Instance Variable of <sys-hostent>: name

The formal name of the host (string).

Instance Variable of <sys-hostent>: aliases

A list of alias names of the host (list of strings).

Instance Variable of <sys-hostent>: addresses

A list of addresses (list of strings). Only ipv4 address is supported currently. Each address is represented by dotted decimal notation.

Function: sys-gethostbyname name

Looks up a host named name. If found, returns a <sys-hostent> object. Otherwise, returns #f.

(let ((host (sys-gethostbyname "www.w3c.org")))
  (list (slot-ref host 'name)
        (slot-ref host 'aliases)
        (slot-ref host 'addresses)))
  ⇒ ("www.w3.org" ("www.w3c.org") ("18.29.1.34" "18.29.1.35"))
Function: sys-gethostbyaddr addr proto

Looks up a host that has an address addr of protocol proto. addr is a natural string representation of the address; for ipv4, it is a dotted decimal notation. proto is a protocol number; only AF_INET is supported currently. If the host is found, returns a <sys-hostent> object. Otherwise, returns #f.

(let ((host (sys-gethostbyaddr "127.0.0.1" AF_INET)))
  (list (slot-ref host 'name)
        (slot-ref host 'aliases)
        (slot-ref host 'addresses))
  ⇒ ("localhost" ("localhost.localdomain") ("127.0.0.1"))
Builtin Class: <sys-servent>

An entry of the network service database. Corresponding to struct servent in C. The following slots are available read-only.

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: name

The formal name of the service (string).

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: aliases

A list of alias names of the service (list of strings).

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: port

A port number registered for this service (exact integer).

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: proto

A protocol name for this service (string).

Function: sys-getservbyname name proto

Looks up the network service database with a service name name and a protocol proto. Both name and proto must be a string. If a service is found, an instance of <sys-servent> is returned. Otherwise, #f is returned.

(let ((serv (sys-getservbyname "http" "tcp")))
  (list (slot-ref serv 'name)
        (slot-ref serv 'aliases)
        (slot-ref serv 'port)
        (slot-ref serv 'proto)))
  ⇒ ("http" () 80 "tcp")
Function: sys-getservbyport port proto

Looks up the network service database with a service port port and a protocol proto. port must be an exact integer, and proto must be a string. If a service is found, an instance of <sys-servent> is returned. Otherwise, #f is returned.

(let ((serv (sys-getservbyport 6000 "tcp")))
  (list (slot-ref serv 'name)
        (slot-ref serv 'aliases)
        (slot-ref serv 'port)
        (slot-ref serv 'proto)))
  ⇒ ("x-server" () 6000 "tcp")
Builtin Class: <sys-protoent>

An entry of the protocol database. Corresponds to struct protoent in C. The following slots are available read-only.

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: name

The formal name of the protocol (string).

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: aliases

A list of alias names of the protocol (list of strings).

Instance Variable of <sys-servent>: proto

A protocol number (exact integer).

Function: sys-getprotobyname name

Looks up the network protocol database with a name name, which must be a string. If a protocol is found, an instance of <sys-protoent> is returned. Otherwise, #f is returned.

(let ((proto (sys-getprotobyname "icmp")))
  (list (slot-ref proto 'name)
        (slot-ref proto 'aliases)
        (slot-ref proto 'proto)))
  ⇒ ("icmp" ("ICMP") 1)
Function: sys-getprotobynumber number

Looks up the network protocol database with a protocol number number, which must be an exact integer. If a protocol is found, an instance of <sys-protoent> is returned. Otherwise, #f is returned.

(let ((proto (sys-getprotobynumber 17)))
  (list (slot-ref proto 'name)
        (slot-ref proto 'aliases)
        (slot-ref proto 'proto)))
  ⇒ ("udp" ("UDP") 17)
Builtin Class: <sys-addrinfo>

The new interface to keep address information. Corresponds to struct addrinfo in C. This is only available if gauche is configured with –enable-ipv6 option. The following slots are provided.

Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: flags
Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: family
Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: socktype
Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: protocol
Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: addrlen
Instance Variable of <sys-addrinfo>: addr
Function: sys-getaddrinfo nodename servname hints

Returns a list of <sys-addrinfo> instances from the given nodename, servname and hints. This is only available if gauche is compiled with –enable-ipv6 option.

Function: sys-ntohs integer
Function: sys-ntohl integer
Function: sys-htons integer
Function: sys-htonl integer

Utility functions to convert 16bit (s) or 32bit (l) integers between network byte order (n) and host byte order (h).

Scheme API to the netdb interface calls those byte order conversion functions internally, so you don’t usually need them so much as in C programs. However, it may be useful when you’re constructing or analyzing binary packets. See also Packing Binary Data to handle binary data.


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