In CLOS-like object systems, the object system is built on
top of itself—that is, things such as the structure of the class,
how a class is created, how an instance is created and initialized,
and how a method is dispatched and called, are all defined in terms
of the object system. For example, a class is just an instance of
<class> that defines a generic structure and behavior
of standard classes. If you subclass
<class>, then you can
create your own set of classes that behaves differently than the
default behavior; in effect, you are creating your own object system.
Metaobject protocols are the definitions of APIs concerning about how the object systems are built—building-block classes, and the names and orders of generic functions to be called during operations of the object system. Subclassing these classes and specializing these methods are the means of customizing object system behaviors.
|• Class instantiation:|
|• Customizing slot access:|
|• Method instantiation:|
|• Customizing method application:|
Every class is an instance of a group of special classes.
A class that can be a class of another class is called metaclass.
In Gauche, only the
<class> class or its subclasses
can be a metaclass.
define-class macro is basically a wrapper of
the code that creates an instance of
(or specified metaclass) and bind it to the given name.
Suppose you have the following
(define-class name (supers) slot-specs options …)
It is expanded into a form like this (you can see the exact form
by looking at the definition of
define-class macro in
src/libobj.scm of the source code tree.
(define name (let ((tmp1 (make metaclass :name 'name :supers (list supers) :slots (map process-slot-definitions slot-specs) :defined-modules (list (current-module)) options …))) … check class redefinition … … registering accessor methods … tmp1))
The created class’s class, i.e. metaclass, is determined by the following rules.
:metaclassoption is given to the
define-classmacro, its value is used. The value must be the
<class>class or its descendants.
<class>, then the created class’s metaclass is also
<class>or another metaclass
A, then the created class’ metaclass is
C…) other than
<class>, then the created class’ metaclass is a metaclass that inherits all of those metaclasses
The class’s name, superclasses, and slot definitions are passed
as the initialization arguments to the
make generic function,
with other arguments passed to
The initialization argument
defined-modules is passed to
remember which module the class is defined, for the redefinition of
The slot specifications slot-specs are processed
by internal method process-slot-definitions
(which can’t be directly called) to be turned
into slot definitions. Specifically, an
option is turned into an
:init-thunk option, and
options are quoted.
After the class (an instance of metaclass) is created, the global binding of name is checked. If it is bound to a class, then the class redefinition protocol is invoked (see Class redefinition).
Then, the methods given to
:accessor slot options in slot-spec are
collected and registered to the corresponding generic functions.
The base class of all metaclasses,
the following slots. Note that these slots are for internal management,
and users can’t change those information freely once the class is
It is recommended to obtain information about a class by procedures described in Class object, instead of directly accessing those slots.
The name of the class; the symbol given to
class-name returns this value.
Class precedence list.
class-precedence-list returns this value.
The list of direct superclasses.
class-direct-supers returns this value.
An assoc list of slot accessors—it encapsulates how each slot should be accessed.
A list of slot definitions.
class-slots returns this value.
See Slot definition object, for the details of slot definitions.
A list of slot definitions that is directly specified in this
class definition (i.e. not inherited).
class-direct-slots returns this value.
The number of instance allocated slots.
A list of classes that directly inherits this class.
class-direct-subclasses returns this value.
A list of methods that has this class in its specializer list.
class-direct-methods returns this value.
The initialization argument list when this class is created. The information is used to initialize redefined class (see Class redefinition).
A list of modules where this class has a global binding.
If this class has been redefined, this slot contains a reference
to the new class. Otherwise, this slot has
The value of this slot indicates how this class is created.
Scheme defined class has a symbol
scheme. Other values
are for internal use.
define-class macro expands into a call of
(make <class> …), which allocates a class metaobject
initialize method. This method takes care of
computing inheritance order (class precedence list) and calculate slots,
and set up various internal slots. Then, at the very end of
this method, it freezes the essential class slots; they became
Calculation of inheritance and slots are handle by generic
functions. If you define a metaclass, you can define methods
for them to customize how those calculations are done.
Class inheritance is calculated by
compute-cpl defined below.
Slot calculation is a bit involved, and explained in the
next subsection (see Customizing slot access).
If your metaclass needs to initialize auxiliary slots, you can
define your own
initialize method, in which you call
next-method first to set up the core part of the
<class> structure, then you sets up metaclass-specific part.
One caveat is that, after
initialization of the core
<class> part, you can no longer
modify essential class slots. If you need to tweak those slots,
you can override
class-post-initialize method, which
is called right before the core class slots are frozen.
These two generic functions are responsible to determine what slots a class has, and how each slot is accessed.
initialize method of a class,
compute-slots is called after the class’s
direct-slots are set.
It must decide what slots the class should have, and what
slot options each slot should have, based on those three piece
of information. The returned value should have the following
form, and it is used as the value of the
slots slot of the class.
<slots> : (<slot-definition> ...) <slot-definition> : (<slot-name> . <slot-options>) <slot-name> : symbol <slot-options> : keyword-value alternating list.
slots slot of the class is set by the returned
compute-get-n-set is called for each slot
to calculate how to access and modify the slot.
The class and the slot definition are the arguments.
It must return either one of the followings:
This slot becomes n-th instance slot. This is the only way to allocate a slot per instance.
The base method of compute-get-n-set keeps track of the current
number of allocated instance slots in the class’s
slot. It is not recommended for other specialized methods to use or
change the value of this slot, unless you know a very good reason to
override the object system behavior in deep down. Usually it is suffice
next-method to let the base method reserve an instance
slot for you.
See the examples below for modifying instance slot access behaviors.
(get-proc set-proc bound?-proc initializable)
The get-proc, set-proc and bound?-proc elements are procedures
invoked when this slot of an instance is accessed (either via
or an accessor method specified by
:setter slot options).
The value other than get-proc may be
#f, and can be omitted
if all the values after it is also
#f. That is, the simplest
form of this type of return value is a list of one element,
The procedure may return
#<undef> to indicate the slot is
unbound. It triggers the
slot-unbound generic function.
(That is, this type of slot cannot have
#<undef> as its value.)
If this element is
#f or omitted, the slot becomes read-only;
any attempt to write to the slot will raise an error.
slot-bound?is called to check whether the slot of an instance is bound, bound?-proc is called with an argument, the instance. It should return a boolean value which will be the result of
If this element is
#f or omitted,
call get-proc and returns true if it returns
Access to this slot is redirected through the returned
slot-accessor object. See below for more on
The value returned by
compute-get-n-set is immediately passed
compute-slot-accessor to create a slot accessor object,
which encapsulates how to access and modify the slot.
After all slot definitions are processed by
compute-slot-accessor, an assoc list of
slot names and
<slot-accessor> objects are stored in the
Access-specifier is a value returned from
compute-get-n-set. The base method creates an instance
<slot-accessor> that encapsulates how to
access the given slot.
Created slot accessor objects are stored (as an assoc list using
slot names as keys) in the class’s
Standard slot accessors and mutators, such as
slot-bound?, and the slot accessor
methods specified in
slot options, all go through slot accessor object eventually.
Specifically, those functions and methods first looks up
the slot accessor object of the desired slot, then calls
The standard method walks CPL of class and gathers all direct slots. If slots with the same name are found, the one of a class closer to class in CPL takes precedence.
The standard processes the slot definition with the following
The low-level slot accessing mechanism. Every function or method that needs to read or write to a slot eventually comes down to one of these functions.
Ordinary programs need not call these functions directly. If you ever need to call them, you have to be careful not to grab the reference to slot-accessor too long; if obj’s class is changed or redefined, slot-accessor can no longer be used.
Here we show a couple of small examples to illustrate how slot access
protocol can be customized. You can also look at
modules (in the source tree, look under
for more examples.
The first example implements the same functionality of
:virtual slot allocation. We add
slot allocation, which adds
(define-class <procedural-slot-meta> (<class>) ()) (define-method compute-get-n-set ((class <procedural-slot-meta>) slot) (if (eqv? (slot-definition-allocation slot) :procedural) (let ([get-proc (slot-definition-option slot :ref)] [set-proc (slot-definition-option slot :set!)] [bound-proc (slot-definition-option slot :bound?)]) (list get-proc set-proc bound-proc)) (next-method)))
compute-get-n-set is defined on a metaclass
<procedural-slot-meta>. It checks the slot allocation,
handles it if it is
:procedural, and delegates other
slot allocation cases to
next-method. This is a typical
way to add new slot allocation by layering.
To use this
:procedural slot, give
:metaclass argument of
(define-class <temp> () ((temp-c :init-keyword :temp-c :init-value 0) (temp-f :allocation :procedural :ref (lambda (o) (+ (*. (ref o 'temp-c) 9/5) 32)) :set! (lambda (o v) (set! (ref o 'temp-c) (*. (- v 32) 5/9))) :bound? (lambda (o) (slot-bound? o 'temp-c)))) :metaclass <procedural-slot-meta>)
An instance of
<temp> keeps a temperature in both
Celsius and Fahrenheit. Here’s an example interaction.
gosh> (define T (make <temp>)) T gosh> (d T) #<<temp> 0xb6b5c0> is an instance of class <temp> slots: temp-c : 0 temp-f : 32.0 gosh> (set! (ref T 'temp-c) 100) #<undef> gosh> (d T) #<<temp> 0xb6b5c0> is an instance of class <temp> slots: temp-c : 100 temp-f : 212.0 gosh> (set! (ref T 'temp-f) 450) #<undef> gosh> (d T) #<<temp> 0xb6b5c0> is an instance of class <temp> slots: temp-c : 232.22222222222223 temp-f : 450.0
Our next example is a simpler version of
We add a slot option
:filter, which takes a procedure
that is applied to a value to be set to the slot.
(define-class <filter-meta> (<class>) ()) (define-method compute-get-n-set ((class <filter-meta>) slot) (cond [(slot-definition-option slot :filter #f) => (lambda (f) (let1 acc (compute-slot-accessor class slot (next-method)) (list (lambda (o) (slot-ref-using-accessor o acc)) (lambda (o v) (slot-set-using-accessor! o acc (f v))) (lambda (o) (slot-bound-using-accessor? o acc)) #t)))] [else (next-method)]))
The trick here is to call
compute-slot-accessor to calculate the slot accessor
and wrap it. See how this metaclass works:
(define-class <foo> () ((v :init-value 0 :filter x->number)) :metaclass <filter-meta>) gosh> (define foo (make <foo>)) foo gosh> (ref foo'v) 0 gosh> (set! (ref foo'v) "123") #<undef> gosh> (ref foo'v) 123