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R7RS-large defines hashtable (`scheme.hash-table`

module,
see R7RS hash tables) but its API is not completely consistent
with Gauche’s original hashtables and other native APIs.

Rather than mixing different flavor of APIs, we keep Gauche’s native
API consistent, and provide R7RS procedures that are inconsitent
with aliases—specifically, those procedures are suffixed with `-r7`

in `gauche`

module. For portable programs, you can import
`scheme.hash-table`

to get R7RS names.

- Builtin Class:
**<hash-table>** -
Hash table class. Inherits

`<collection>`

and`<dictionary>`

.Gauche doesn’t provide immutable hash tables for now. (If you need immutable maps, see Immutable map).

- Function:
**hash-table?***obj* [R7RS hash-table] Returns

`#t`

iff`obj`is a hash table.

- Function:
**hash-table-mutable?***ht* [R7RS hash-table] Returns

`#t`

iff a hash table`ht`is mutable. Gauche doesn’t have immutable hash tables, so this procedure always returns`#t`

for any hash tables.

- Function:
**hash-table-comparator***ht* Returns a comparator used in the hashtable

`ht`.

- Function:
**hash-table-type***ht* This is an old API, superseded by

`hash-table-comparator`

.Returns one of symbols

`eq?`

,`eqv?`

,`equal?`

,`string=?`

,`general`

, indicating the type of the hash table`ht`.

- Function:
**hash-table-num-entries***ht* - Function:
**hash-table-size***ht* [R7RS hash-table] Return the number of entries in the hash table

`ht`. R7RS name is`hash-table-size`

.

- Function:
**make-hash-table***:optional comparator* [R7RS+ hash-table] Creates a hash table. The

`comparator`argument specifies key equality and hash function using a comparator (see Basic comparators). If omitted,`eq-comparator`

is used. Note that in R7RS,`comparator`argument can’t be omitted.As Gauche’s extension, the

`comparator`argument can also be one of the symbols`eq?`

,`eqv?`

,`equal?`

or`string=?`

. If it is one of those symbols,`eq-comparator`

,`eqv-comparator`

,`equal-comparator`

and`string-comparator`

will be used, respectively.The comparator must have hash function, of course. See Hashing, for the built-in hash functions. In general, comparators derived from other comparators having hash functions also have appropriate hash functions.

- Function:
**hash-table-from-pairs***comparator key&value …* Constructs and returns a hash table from given list of arguments. The

`comparator`argument is the same as of`make-hash-table`

. Each`key&value`must be a pair, and its car is used as a key and its cdr is used as a value.Note: This is called

`hash-table`

by 0.9.5. R7RS introduced a procedure with the same name, but different interface. We see R7RS version makes more sense, so we’ll eventually switch to it, but the transition will take long time. The R7RS interface is available as`hash-table-r7`

, and we urge you to use it in the new code, and replace existing`hash-table`

with`hash-table-from-pairs`

.(hash-table-from-pairs 'eq? '(a . 1) '(b . 2)) ≡ (rlet1 h (make-hash-table 'eq?) (hash-table-put! h 'a 1) (hash-table-put! h 'b 2))

- Function:
**hash-table***comparator key&value …* An alias of

`hash-table-from-pairs`

above. R7RS introduced the same name procedure with different interface (see`hash-table-r7`

below), and we’d like to switch to it in future. For now, use either`hash-table-from-pairs`

or`hash-table-r7`

, or import`scheme.hash-table`

and write in R7RS.

- Function:
**hash-table-r7***comparator args …* Create and returns a hash table using

`comparator`. The`args`… are the contents, alternating keys and values.This is defined as

`hash-table`

in R7RS`scheme.hash-table`

(see R7RS hash tables).(hash-table-r7 'eq? 'a 1 'b 2) ≡ (rlet1 h (make-hash-table 'eq?) (hash-table-put! h 'a 1) (hash-table-put! h 'b 2))

Note: An R7RS compliant implementation of

`hash-table`

may return an immutable hash table. Since Gauche doesn’t have immutable hash tables (we have immutable maps instead; see Immutable map), we return mutable hash tables. However, the portable program should refrain from mutating the returned hash tables.

- Function:
**hash-talbe-unfold***p f g seed comparator :rest args* [R7RS hash-table] Constructs and returns a new hash table with those repetitive steps. Each iteration keeps the current seed value, whose initial value is

`seed`.- Apply a stop predicate
`p`to the current seed value. If it returns a true value, stop. - Apply a value producer
`f`to the current seed value. It must return two values, which are used as a key and the corresponding value, of the hash table. - Apply a next procedure
`g`to the current seed value. The value it returns becomes the next seed value.

- Apply a stop predicate

- Function:
**hash-table-copy***ht :optional mutable?* [R7RS hash-table] Returns a new copy of a hash table

`ht`.R7RS defines this procedure to return an immutable hash table if the implementation supports one, unless the optional

`mutable?`argument is provided and not false. Gauche doesn’t have immutable hash tables so it ignores the optional argument and always returns a mutable hash table. But when you write a portable programs, keep it in mynd.

- Function:
**hash-table-empty-copy***ht* [R7RS hash-table] Returns a new mutable empty hash table that has the same properties as the given hash table

`ht`.

- Function:
**alist->hash-table***alist :optional comparator* [R7RS+ hash-table] Creates and returns a hash table that has entries of each element in alist, using its car as the key and its cdr as the value. The

`comparator`argument is the same as in`make-hash-table`

. The default value of`comparator`is`eq-comparator`

.R7RS doesn’t allow to omit

`comparator`.

- Function:
**hash-table->alist***hash-table* [R7RS hash-table]

(hash-table-map h cons)

- Function:
**hash-table-get***ht key :optional default* Search

`key`from a hash table`ht`, and returns its value if found. If the key is not found in the table and`default`is given, it is returned. Otherwise an error is signaled.

- Function:
**hash-table-put!***ht key value* Puts a key

`key`with a value`value`to the hash table`ht`.

- Method:
**ref***(ht <hash-table>) key :optional default* - Method:
**(setter ref)***(ht <hash-table>) key value* Method versions of

`hash-table-get`

and`hash-table-put!`

.

- Function:
**hash-table-ref***ht key :optional failure success* [R7RS hash-table] This is R7RS way to look up a hash table.

Look up a value associated to the

`key`in the table`ht`, then pass it to a procedure`success`, and returns its value. If`success`is omitted, an identity function is used.If there’s no association for

`key`in`ht`, a thunk`failure`is called and its result is returned. The default value of`failure`throws an error.It is more general than Gauche’s

`hash-table-get`

, but if you need to simply return a fallback value in case of failure, you need to wrap it with a clojure, which is annoying. In R7RS, you can use`hash-table-ref/default`

below.

- Function:
**hash-table-ref/default***ht key default* [R7RS hash-table] Looks up

`key`in a hash table`ht`and returns the associated value. If there’s no`key`in the table, returns`default`.This is same as Gauche’s

`hash-table-get`

, except that`default`is not optional. We provide both, for`hash-table-get`

is short and handy.

- Function:
**hash-table-set!***ht args …* [R7RS hash-table] This is R7RS version to put associations into a hash table. The

`args`… is a list of alternating keys and values; so, unlike Gauche’s`hash-table-put!`

, you can insert more than one associations at once. It is an error if`args`… have odd number of arguments.(hash-table-set! ht 'a 1 'b 2) ≡ (begin (hash-table-put! ht 'a 1) (hash-table-put! ht 'b 2))

- Function:
**hash-table-intern!-r7***ht key failure* This is defined in R7RS as

`hash-table-intern!`

. We add`-r7`

suffix to remind that it takes a failure thunk, which is consistent with R7RS hash-table interface but not Gauche’s way.Lookup

`key`in`ht`. If there’s already an entry, it just returns the value. Otherwise, it calls a thunk`failure`, and insert the association of`key`and the return value of`failure`into`ht`, and returns the value.

- Function:
**hash-table-exists?***ht key* - Function:
**hash-table-contains?***ht key* [R7RS hash-table] Returns

`#t`

if a hash table`ht`has a key`key`.R7RS name is

`hash-table-contains?`

.

- Function:
**hash-table-delete!***ht key* Deletes an entry that has a key

`key`from the hash table`ht`. Returns`#t`

if the entry has exist, or`#f`

if the entry hasn’t exist. The same function is called`hash-table-remove!`

in STk (except that it returns an undefined value); I use ‘delete’ for consistency to SRFI-1, SRFI-13 and other parts of the libraries.Note: This is different from R7RS

`hash-table-delete!`

, so we provide R7RS interface with an alias`hash-table-delete!-r7`

.

- Function:
**hash-table-delete!-r7***ht key …* Delets entries that have

`key`… from the hash table`ht`. The`key`which isn’t in`ht`has no effect. Returns the number of entries actually deleted.This is called

`hash-table-delete!`

in R7RS, and so as in`scheme.hash-table`

. We provide this under different name, for Gauche’s`hash-table-delete!`

returns a boolean value.

- Function:
**hash-table-clear!***ht* [R7RS hash-table] Removes all entries in the hash table

`ht`.

- Function:
**hash-table-push!***ht key value* Conses

`value`to the existing value for the key`key`in the hash table`ht`and makes it the new value for`key`. If there’s no entry for`key`, an entry is created with the value`(list`

.`value`)Works the same as the following code, except that this function only looks up the

`key`once, thus it’s more efficient.(hash-table-put!

`ht``key`(cons`value`(hash-table-get`ht``key`'())))

- Function:
**hash-table-pop!***ht key :optional default* Looks for the value for the key

`key`in the hash table`ht`. If found and it is a pair, replaces the value for its cdr and returns car of the original value. If no entry for`key`is in the table, or the value is not a pair, the table is not modified and the procedure returns`default`if given, or signals an error otherwise.During the operation the key is looked for only once, thus runs efficiently.

Note: R7RS has

`hash-table-pop!`

but its totally different. We provide R7RS version as an alias`hash-table-pop!-r7`

- Function:
**hash-table-pop!-r7***ht* Removes one arbitrary entry from

`ht`, and returns the removed entry’s key and value as two values. If`ht`is empty, an error is thrown.This is called

`hash-table-pop!`

in R7RS, and so as in`scheme.hash-table`

. A more general version of`hash-table-push!`

etc. It works basically as the following code piece, except that the lookup of`key`is only done once.(let ((tmp (

`proc`(hash-table-get`ht``key``default`)))) (hash-table-put!`ht``key`tmp) tmp)For example, when you use a hash table to count the occurrences of items, the following line is suffice to increment the counter of the item, regardless of whether

`item`has already appeared or not.(hash-table-update! ht item (cut + 1 <>) 0))

R7RS provides

`hash-table-update!`

with different interface, so we provide R7RS version as an alias`hash-table-update!-r7`

.

- Function:
**hash-table-update!-r7***ht key updater :optional failure success* This is R7RS version of

`hash-table-update!`

. With no optional arguments, it works like Gauche’s`hash-table-update!`

. But in practice you often needs to specify the behavior when`key`hasn’t been in`ht`, in which case R7RS differs from Gauche.The R7RS version works like this but potentially more efficiently:

(hash-table-put! ht key (updater (hash-table-ref-r7 ht key failure success)))

- Function:
**hash-table-update!/default***ht key updater default* [R7RS hash-table] This is the same as Gauche’s

`hash-table-default!`

, except that the default value can’t be omitted.

- Function:
**hash-table-for-each***ht proc* - Function:
**hash-table-map***ht proc* A procedure

`proc`is called with two arguments, a key and its associated value, over all the entries in the hash table`ht`.

- Function:
**hash-table-fold***ht kons knil* For all entries in the hash table

`ht`, a procedure`kons`is called with three arguments; a key, its associated value, and the previous return value of`kons`. The first call of`kons`receives`knil`as the third argument. The return value of the last call of`kons`is returned from`hash-table-fold`

.

- Function:
**hash-table-find***ht pred :optional failure* Apply

`pred`with each key and value in the hash table`ht`. Once`pred`returns a true value, that return value is immediately returned from`hash-table-find`

. If no key-value satisfies`pred`, a thunk`failure`is invoked and its result is returned. If`failure`is omitted,`(lambda () #f)`

is assumed.Note: The convention starting from srfi-1 is that

`*-find`

returns an item in the collection that satisfy the predicate, while`*-any`

returns a non-false value the predicate returns. SRFI-125 broke the convention. The justification given in SRFI-125 discussion was that the “any” semantics is strictly upper-compatible to the “find” semantics so we can combine two. So far, though, SRFI-125 is the only exception of this convention.;; Find if hash tables ha and hb has a common key. (hash-table-find ha (^[k v] (hash-table-exists? hb k)))

- Function:
**hash-table-keys***ht* - Function:
**hash-table-values***ht* Returns all the keys or values of hash table

`ht`in a list, respectively.

- Function:
**hash-table-compare-as-sets***ht1 ht2 :optional value=? fallback* A hash table can be viewed as a set of pairs of key and value. This procedure compares two hash tables

`ht1`and`ht2`as such sets.The key comparators of two tables must match (in terms of

`equal?`

of the comparators). Otherwise, an error is signaled.Two elements of the set are equal to each other iff their keys match with the equality predicate of the key comparator, and their values match with

`value=?`procedure. If omitted,`equal?`is used for`value=?`There can be four cases.

- If
`ht1`is a pure subset of`ht2`, returns -1 (`ht1`is smaller than`ht2`). - If
`ht2`is a pure subset of`ht1`, returns 1 (`ht1`is greater than`ht2`). - If
`ht1`and`ht2`contains exactly the same elements, returns 0 (`ht1`equals to`ht2`). - Neither
`ht1`nor`ht2`is a subset of another. In this case,`fallback`is returned if it is given, or an error is thrown.

- If

- Function:
**hash-table=?***value-cmpr ht1 ht2* [R7RS hash-table] This also compares two hash tables

`ht1`and`ht2`as sets, and returns true iff two are the same. That is, every element in`ht1`is also in`ht2`and vice versa.Two element are the same iff their keys are the same in terms of the equality predicate of the tables’ key comparator, and their values are the same in terms of the equality predicate of a comparator

`value-cmpr`.It is an error if

`ht1`and`ht2`has different key comparators. See also`hash-table-compare-as-sets`

above.

- Function:
**hash-table-union!***ht1 ht2* - Function:
**hash-table-intersection!***ht1 ht2* - Function:
**hash-table-difference!***ht1 ht2* - Function:
**hash-table-xor!***ht1 ht2* [R7RS hash-table] Perform set operations on two hashtables

`ht1`and`ht2`, and modify`ht1`to store the result. Note that these procedures only look at the keys for operation; if the values of the same key differ between`ht1`and`ht2`, the value in`ht1`is taken.- The union operation picks each entry that is in at least one of
`ht1`or`ht2`. - The intersection operation picks each entry that is both in
`ht1`and`ht2`. - The difference operation picks each entry that is in
`ht1`but not in`ht2`. - The xor operation picks each entry that is in only one of
`ht1`or`ht2`, but not in both.

- The union operation picks each entry that is in at least one of

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