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`srfi-42`

- Eager comprehensions- Module:
**srfi-42** -
This module provides a generic comprehension mechanism, which some other languages (e.g. Haskell and Python) offer as a built-in mechanism. It provides a rich set of operators so it can be used not only as a list generator but as a generic loop construct (actually, some may say it is as powerful/evil as Common Lisp’s

*loop*macro).It runs eagerly as the name suggests, that is, if it generates a list, it creates the entire list when evaluated, instead of generate the elements

*on demand*. Thus it can’t represent an infinite sequence, which Haskell’s comprehension naturally does. Gauche offers a few alternatives to deal with lazy, possibly infinite, sequences: See Lazy sequences, Generators and Stream library.

Let’s begin with some examples.

Generate a list of squares for the first five integers:

(list-ec (: i 5) (* i i)) ⇒ (0 1 4 9 16)

`list-ec`

is a comprehension macro that generates a list.
The first form `(: i 5)`

is called a `qualifier`, which
specifies a set of values to repeat over (here it is each integer
from 0 below 5).
The last form
`(* i i)`

is called a `body`, which is an ordinary Scheme expression
evaluated for each values generated by the `qualifier`.

A comprehension can have more than one qualifiers.
Next example generate set of pair of numbers `(x y)`

, where `x`

is between 2 (inclusive) and 5 (exclusive),
and `y`

is between 1 (inclusive) and x (exclusive).

(list-ec (: x 2 5) (: y 1 x) (list x y)) ⇒ ((2 1) (3 1) (3 2) (4 1) (4 2) (4 3))

The qualifiers works as *nested*; that is, `(: x 2 5)`

specifies to repeat the rest of the clauses—`(: y 1 x)`

and
`(list x y)`

.

The above two examples can be written in Haskell as the followings:

[ i*i | i <- [0..4] ] [ (x,y) | x <- [2..4], y <- [1..x-1] ]

Note the differences: (1) In Haskell, the body expression to yield the elements comes first, followed by qualifiers (selectors). In srfi-42, the body expression comes last. (2) In srfi-42, range operator’s lower bound is inclusive but its upper bound is exclusive.

List a set of numbers `(a b c d)`

, where `a^3+b^3 = c^3+d^3`

:

(define (taxi-number n) (list-ec (: a 1 n) (: b (+ a 1) n) (: c (+ a 1) b) (: d (+ c 1) b) (if (= (+ (expt a 3) (expt b 3)) (+ (expt c 3) (expt d 3)))) (list a b c d)))

If you want to change values of more than one variable simultaneously, instead of nesting, you can bundle the qualifiers like this:

(list-ec (:parallel (: x '(a b c d)) (: y '(1 2 3 4))) (list x y)) ⇒ ((a 1) (b 2) (c 3) (d 4))

You can generate not only a list, but other sequences:

(vector-ec (: i 5) i) ⇒ #(0 1 2 3 4) (string-ec (: i 5) (integer->char (+ i 65))) ⇒ "ABCDE"

Or apply folding operations:

(sum-ec (: i 1 100) i) ⇒ 4950 ;; sum of integers from 1 below 100. (product-ec (: i 1 10) i) ⇒ 362880 ;; ... and product of them.

Each comprehension takes the following form.

(comprehension-macroqualifier…body)

It evaluates `body` repeatedly as specified by `qualifier` ….
Depending on the type of comprehension,
the results of `body` may be either collected to create an
aggregate (list, vector, string, ...), folded by some operator
(sum, product, min, max, ...), or simply discarded.

Each `qualifier` specifies how to repeat the following
`qualifiers` and `body`. A `qualifier` can be a
generational qualifier that yields a set of values to loop
over, or a control qualifier that specify a condition
to exclude some values. See the Qualifiers heading below.

A few comprehensions takes extra values before `qualifiers` or
after `body`.

- Macro:
**do-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Repeats`body`. The results of`body`is discarded. This is for side-effecting operations.

- Macro:
**list-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Repeats`body`and collects the results into a list.

- Macro:
**append-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Repeats`body`, which must yield a list. Returns a list which is the concatenation of all lists returned by`body`.

- Macro:
**string-ec***qualifier … body* - Macro:
**string-append-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Repeats`body`, which must yield a character (in`string-ec`

) or a string (in`string-append-ec`

). Returns a string that consists of the results of`body`.

- Macro:
**vector-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Repeats`body`and collects the results into a vector.

- Macro:
**vector-of-length-ec***k qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} This is like`vector-ec`

, except that the length of the result vector is known to be`k`. It can be more efficient than`vector-ec`

. Unless the comprehension repeats exactly`k`

times, an error is signaled.

- Macro:
**sum-ec***qualifier … body* - Macro:
**product-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`}`body`must yield a numeric value. Returns sum of and product of the results, respectively.

- Macro:
**min-ec***qualifier … body* - Macro:
**max-ec***qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`}`body`must yield a numeric value. Returns maximum and minimum value of the results, respectively.`body`must be evaluated at least once, or an error is signaled.

- Macro:
**any?-ec***qualifier … test* - Macro:
**every?-ec***qualifier … test* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Evaluates`test`for each iteration, and returns`#t`

as soon as it yields non-`#f`

(for`any?-ec`

), or returns`#f`

as soon as it yields`#f`

(for`every?-ec`

). Unlink the comprehensions introduced above, these stop evaluating`test`as soon as the condition meets. If the qualifiers makes no iteration,`#f`

and`#t`

are returned, respectively.

- Macro:
**first-ec***default qualifier … body* - Macro:
**last-ec***default qualifier … body* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} First initializes the result by the value of the expression`default`, then start iteration, and returns the value of the first and last evaluation of`body`, respectively. In fact,`first-ec`

only evaluates`body`at most once.These procedures are most useful when used with control qualifiers. For example, the following

`first-ec`

returns the*first*set of distinct integers (`x`,`y`,`z`), where`x`*`x`+`y`*`y`+`z`*`z`becomes a square of another integer`w`.(first-ec #f (:integers w) (: z 1 w) (: y 1 z) (: x 1 y) (if (= (* w w) (+ (* x x) (* y y) (* z z)))) (list x y z w))

Note that the first qualifier,

`(:integers w)`

, generates infinite number of integers; if you use`list-ec`

instead of`first-ec`

it won’t stop.

- Macro:
**fold-ec***seed qualifier … expr proc* - Macro:
**fold3-ec***seed qualifier … expr init proc* [SRFI-42] {

`srfi-42`} Reduces the values produced by`expr`.Suppose

`expr`produces a sequence of values`x0`,`x1`, …,`xN`.`Fold-ec`

calculates the following value:(

`proc``xN`(…(`proc``x1`(`proc``x0``seed`))…))It’s similar to

`fold`

, except that`proc`is evaluated within the scope of`qualifier`… so you can refer to the variables introduced by them. On the other hand,`seed`is outside of the scope of`qualifier`s.`Fold-ec3`

is almost the same but the initial value calculation. In`fold-ec3`

,`seed`is only used when`qualifier`s makes no iteration. Otherwise it calculates the following value:(

`proc``xN`(…(`proc``x1`(`init``x0`))…))

This type of qualifiers generates (possibly infinite) values over which the rest of clauses iterate.

In the following descriptions, `vars` refers to either
a single identifier, or a series of identifier and a form
`(index `

. The single identifier
in the former case and the first identifier in the latter case
name the variable to which each generated value is bound.
The `identifier2`)`identifier2` in the latter case names a variable
to which a series of integers, increasing with each generated
element, is bound. See the following example:

(list-ec (: x '(a b c)) x) ⇒ (a b c) (list-ec (: x (index y) '(a b c)) (cons x y)) ⇒ ((a . 0) (b . 1) (c . 2))

- EC Qualifier:
**:***vars arg1 args …* A generic dispatcher of generational qualifiers. An appropriate generational qualifier is selected based on the types of

`arg1``args`….

- EC Qualifier:
**:list***vars arg1 args …* - EC Qualifier:
**:vector***vars arg1 args …* - EC Qualifier:
**:uvector***vars arg1 args …* - EC Qualifier:
**:string***vars arg1 args …* `Arg1``args`… should be all lists, vectors, uniform vectors or strings, respectively. Repeats the subsequent clauses while binding each element from those args bound to`vars`. (The`:uvector`

qualifier is Gauche’s extension.)(list-ec (:string c "ab" "cd") c) ⇒ (#\a #\b #\c #\d)

If the arguments given to the generic qualifier

`:`

are all lists, vectors, uniform vectors or strings, then these qualifiers are used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:integers***vars* Generates infinite series of increasing integers, starting from 0.

- EC Qualifier:
**:range***vars stop* - EC Qualifier:
**:range***vars start stop* - EC Qualifier:
**:range***vars start stop step* Generates a series of exact integers, starting from

`start`(defaults to 0) and stops below`stop`, stepping by`step`(defaults to 1). Giving a negative integer to`step`makes a decreasing series.(list-ec (:range v 5) v) ⇒ (0 1 2 3 4) (list-ec (:range v 3 8) v) ⇒ (3 4 5 6 7) (list-ec (:range v 1 8 2) v) ⇒ (1 3 5 7) (list-ec (:range v 8 1 -2) v) ⇒ (8 6 4 2)

If one, two or three exact integer(s) is/are given to the generic qualifier

`:`

, this qualifier is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:real-range***vars stop* - EC Qualifier:
**:real-range***vars start stop* - EC Qualifier:
**:real-range***vars start stop step* Generates a series of real numbers, starting from

`start`(defaults to 0) and stops below`stop`, stepping by`step`(defaults to 1). If all the arguments are exact numbers, the result consists of exact numbers; if any of the arguments are inexact, the result consists of inexact numbers.(list-ec (:real-range v 5.0) v) ⇒ (0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0) (list-ec (:real-range v 1 4 1/3) v) ⇒ (1 4/3 5/3 2 7/3 8/3 3 10/3 11/3) (list-ec (:real-range v 1 5.0 1/2) v) ⇒ (1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5)

If one, two or three real numbers is/are given to the generic qualifier

`:`

, and any one of them isn’t an exact integer, then this qualifier is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:char-range***vars min max* Generates a series of characters, starting from

`min`and ending at`max`(inclusive). The characters are enumerated in the order defined by`char<=?`

(see Characters).(list-ec (:char-range v #\a #\e) v) ⇒ (#\a #\b #\c #\d #\e)

If two characters are given to the generic qualifier

`:`

, this qualifier is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:port***vars port* - EC Qualifier:
**:port***vars port read-proc* Generates a series of values read from an input port

`port`, by the procedure`read-proc`(defaults to`read`

). The series terminates when EOF is read.(call-with-input-string "a \"b\" :c" (^p (list-ec (:port v p) v))) ⇒ (a "b" :c)

If one or two arguments are given to the generic qualifier

`:`

and the first one is an input port, then this qualifier is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:generator***vars gen* This is Gauche’s extension and not defined in SRFI-42.

`gen`must be a procedure with zero arguments. This qualifier repeats until`gen`returns EOF.Gauche has a set of utilities to create and operate on such procedures; see Generators.

(use gauche.generator) (list-ec (:generator v (grange 1 8)) v) ⇒ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7)

If one argument is given to the generic qualifier

`:`

and it is applicable without arguments, then this qualifier is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:collection***vars coll* This is Gauche’s extension and not defined in SRFI-42.

`coll`must be an instance of`<collection>`

or its subclass. (see Collection framework). This qualifier repeats over the elements in the collection.If srfi-42 has a specialized qualifier, it is faster to use it (e.g. a vector is also a collection, but using

`:vector`

is faster than`:collection`

).If one argument is given to the generic qualifier

`:`

and it is a collection other than the specific types suppored directly in srfi-42, this qualifer is used.

- EC Qualifier:
**:parallel***generator …* This is used to run through multiple generators in parallel. It terminates when any one of

`generator`is exhausted.(list-ec (:parallel (: x '(a b c)) (: y "defg")) (cons x y)) ⇒ ((a . #\d) (b . #\e) (c . #\f)) ;; Compare with this: (list-ec (: x '(a b c)) (: y "defg") (cons x y)) ⇒ ((a . #\d) (a . #\e) (a . #\f) (a . #\g) (b . #\d) (b . #\e) (b . #\f) (b . #\g) (c . #\d) (c . #\e) (c . #\f) (c . #\g))

- EC Qualifier:
**:let***vars expr* Evaluate

`expr`, and bind the result to`vars`and execure the following clauses once. If`vars`has an index var, it is bound to 0. It is effectively the same as`(:list vars (list expr))`

.

- EC Qualifier:
**:while***g-qualifier expr* - EC Qualifier:
**:until***generator expr* Generates values from

`g-qualifier`while/until`expr`evaluates true. Here,`g-qualifier`is one of generative EC qualifiers. The variable bound in`g-qualifier`is visible from`expr`.(use math.prime) (sum-ec (:while (: p (index k) *primes*) (<= k 100)) p)

- EC Qualifier:
**:dispatched***vars dispatch arg1 args …*

- EC Qualifier:
**:do***(lb …) ne1? (ls …)* - EC Qualifier:
**:do***(let (ob …) oc …) (lb …) ne1? (let (ib …) ic …) ne2? (ls …)*

- EC Qualifier:
**if***test*

- EC Qualifier:
**not***test* - EC Qualifier:
**and***test …* - EC Qualifier:
**or***test …*

- EC Qualifier:
**begin***command … expr*

- EC Qualifier:
**nested***qualifier …*